Vehicles

Friday ITS Transportation Seminar! Location: A Persistent Framework


flickr photo shared by Ultimate Bart under a Creative Commons ( BY ) license

It's a new school year, and new semester, and a new series of the ITS Transportation Seminars! Kicking things off this week is Jane Macfarlane, Head of Research for HERE. She give a talk on "Location: A Persistent Framework".

Advances in the Internet of Things (IoT), Networking and Connected Car technologies are radically transforming how maps are created and used. Currently, devices are collecting and delivering location data at a scale greater than ever. Although cloud computing provides the computing scale and power required to process these data, new mapping and analytic frameworks are needed to extract useful and actionable knowledge effectively from the data produced by IoT and connected cars. This discussion will provide examples of location data and some of the analytics that HERE uses to transform this data into a higher level understanding of road network dynamics. We will also show how new types of ecosystems are being created by analytics around location data, IoT, and mobility services. Finally, we will discuss how location as a persistent framework will continue to support the very human part of mobility which is Context.

The seminar takes place today, September 4th at 4:00 PM in 290 Hearst Memorial Mining Building with a reception to follow. Cookie Hour will be at 3:30 PM in the same location.

See you this afternoon!

Modeling network of vehicles in a heterogeneous non-urban environment

USMC-111104-M-YP696-003

Last week's Friday Seminar featured EECS Professor Ruzena Bajcsi and grad student Katie Driggs-Campbell presenting their research on developing driver models to address issues in heterogeneous environments (with autonomous vechiles and human drivers). Their research group has focused on the relationship of the individual driver in the environment around them. Modeling driver behavior is important because driver distraction makes drivers unpredictable and leads to significant safety implications. NHTSA reports in 2013, 424,00 people were involved in distracted driving crashes with 3,154 fatalities. Even with the rapid advances in automated and connected vehicle technology,  Bajcsy forseees heterogeneous environments for at least the next 15 years, so the ability of the models controlled the autonomous vehicles will need to understand potential behaviours of human drivers. To develop the models using control theory, Driggs explained how they used human-in-the-loop driving simulations to better detect different stages of driver distraction and maneuvering. These models can then be used for semiautonomous vehicular control

Stay tuned for this Friday's Seminar, which is the last of the semester. ITS gradstudent Haoyu Chen will present his dissertation research on improving public transit at city-wide scales. 

Connected/Autonomous Vehicles, Ownership, and DMCA: What will vehicle ownership mean in the future?


flickr photo shared by sidehike under a Creative Commons ( BY-NC-SA ) license

Today Wired ran a story about John Deere's assertion that purchasing one of their tractors is "an implied license for the life of the vehicle to operate the vehicle." The key issue is not the hardware, but the software and the ability to access and modify it.  Using DMCA, many vehicle manufacturers are submitting comments to the Copyrights Office that modifying their software in a form of piracy. So legally, is this the end of ownership as we know it?

The questions and concerns about this legal development has been brewing for some time, but as the internet of thing comes closer to being a reality more people are calling into question our existing copyright and patent system and their limitations. (Even John Oliver discussed patents!)

This issue has been on the radar of USDOT's ITS JPO for a while now, especially the policy implications for connected and automated vehicles. The critical issue is the balance of open source software and concerns about cybersecurity and safety. Some of the promise of connected/automated vehicles, is the rich big data environments they will operate in but how can the industry cooperatively get there despite concerns about privacy and innovation? There is also the looming issue of liability for connected/autonomous vehicles, much of which hinges questions of safety and the perception of risk. 

It will be interesting to see how all of this develops and the rules are made. 

Making City-Scale Networks of Connected Vehicles Reality


creative commons licensed ( BY-NC-ND ) flickr photo shared by Roberto Maldeno

Last week's Friday Seminar featured João BarrosAssociate Professor at the University of Porto and CEO of Veniam talking about how he and his team turned public transit into smart city hot spots for Porto. After early attempts to use cellular technology for connected vehicles, which had major bottlenecks in the networks and was cost prohibitive, Barros explored the possibilities of using wi-fi technology to create a city wide mesh network. This builds upon some of Barros' earlier research that looked into the feasibility and impact of VANETs in urban environments

The key to Veniam's success on Porto has been the city's fibre-optic backbone to create wifi hotspots around the city, like bus stops. A combination of wifi and the IEEE 802.11p standard for wireless vehicle communication, and deployment in fleets such as many of the city's taxis and Metro de Porto's fleet, made the city wide mesh network possible. It also made it very cheap to offer free wifi on the entire bus fleet, which has pleased passengers

For the buses, the connectivity can be used for ticketing, navigation, infotainment, and vehicle diagnostics. This has also created a very rich, high definition data set of the fleet's operations which has informed service and route updates. 

The mesh network has also been very effective in tracking operations at Porto de Leixões. Early attempts to track vehicles with cellular technology were hindered by the lack of cell towers in the industrial area and interference from shipping containers. The wifi mesh network has made it possible to track port traffic to improve efficiency and safety. 

Barros hinted that the next wave of innovation could be in the field of wearables. His group had a project that tracked bus driver comfort and stress to better understand their behavior and how it depends on the built environment. 

Everybody has an opinion on reclining airplane seats

Open Seating

Recently a flight from LGA to JAX was diverted due to passengers engaged in a seat reclining battle. It was the latest in a string of diverted flights stemming from passenger disruptions over the right to recline. A flight from EWR to DEN was diverted to ORD because a passenger used the Knee Defender to prevent the seat in front of them to recline. A recent flight from MIA to CDG was diverted to BOS after a passenger became upset when the seat in front of them reclined, and they lunged at a flight attendant. 

There is yet to be agreed upon rules for airplane seat reclining. Many say it boils down to being civil. Others are calling for reclining seats to be banned from airplanes because it's been demonstrated that passengers can't be civil.  Even Miss Manners has weighed in - she blames airlines for installing seats so closely together that nobody is happy. 

Today on Slate, Christopher Buccafusco and Chris Sprigman look at the economics of seat reclining. How much would you pay for the person in front of you not to recline? How much would you pay for the right to recline? They conducted an online survey to answer those questions, and they found out:

Recliners wanted on average $41 to refrain from reclining, while reclinees were willing to pay only $18 on average. Only about 21 percent of the time would ownership of the 4 inches change hands.
...
When we flipped the default—that is, when we made the rule that people did not have an automatic right to recline, but would have to negotiate to get it—then people’s values suddenly reversed. Now, recliners were only willing to pay about $12 to recline while reclinees were unwilling to sell their knee room for less than $39. Recliners would have ended up purchasing the right to recline only about 28 percent of the time—the same right that they valued so highly in the other condition.

They go on to say that this is basically the "endowment effect" as described in the 1990 paper by (Berkeley professor and Nobel laureate) Daniel Kahneman, Jack L. Knetsch and Richard H. Thaler, "Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem."

Decreasing seat size is just another way airlines engage in revenue management, along with itemized fees for everything. Airlines are already using dynamic pricing for fares. They also employ tactics to maximize flight frequency and aircraft size, though this can often lead to flight delays (which often results in higher fares). The boarding procedure is another area where airlines can be more cost effective, minimizing the time to board and turnaround time.

But will any of that get you more leg room on your next flight? 

In California, self-driving cars need a permit.

Gcantpark

Yesterday California's 3-foot passing law for cars and bicycles took effect. New regulations from the California DMV about Autonomous Vehicles in California also took effect - all self-driving cars will need a permit for testing. Audi, Mercedes, and Google have already applied for an received the first set of permits in the state. (If you're keeping tabs, Audi received the first permit.)

Regulations and licenses for operation of autonomous vehicles in California will be finalized by January 1, 2015

For background on policy and regulation of autonomous vehicles, check out the 2014 RAND report "Autonomous Vehicle Technology: A Guide for Policymakers," which builds upon concepts from the 2009 PATH report "Liability and Regulation of Autonomous Vehicle Technologies."

Google Unveils Self-Driving Car Protoypes

Yesterday Google posted posted information and videos about their purpose-built autonomous car prototpyes they've built and are testing. Google will have 100 of these vehicles built for initial closed-road testing and hope to have them on California streets by the end of 2014. One of the most talked about features is the distinct lack of a steering wheel. And while the future is almost here, it's a good time to reflect on the potential positives and negatives of autuonomous vehicles (according to Vox)

Examining Electric Vehicle Parking

Electric Vehicle Parking

Electric vehicle (EV) public parking has been rolling out in Berkeley but got a boost recently with station installed at both Whole Foods. The city is slated to get more municipal charging stations soon, including a pilot to look at curbside charging stations

There are mixed opinions about EV public parking options, with concerns about location and demand. Researchers are looking at activity models to overcome public perception and be more effective in urban areas. A new article from Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice continues the discourse. "Electric vehicle parking in European and American context: Economic, energy and environmental analysis," by Marta V. Faria, Patrícia C. Baptista, and Tiago L. Farias, applies a methodology for the placement of EV parking to Lisbon, Madrid, Minneapolis and Manhattan. They conclude:

This research confirms that the success of deploying an EV charging stations infrastructure will be highly dependent on the price the user will have to pay, on the cost of the infrastructure deployed and on the adhesion of the EV users to this kind of infrastructure. These variables are not independent and, consequently, the coordination of public policies and private interest must be promoted in order to reach an optimal solution that does not result in prohibitive costs for the users.

The full article can be read here.  

 

Special Friday Transportation Seminar: Welcome to the Age of Access: Exploring the Sharing Economy and Shared-Use Mobility

Car sharing

This Friday, April 11 is a Special Friday Transportation Seminar. Sponsored by our new University Transportation Center, UC CONNECT, Federal Region 9 And in conjunction with the Transportation Engineering Program Open House. "Welcome to the Age of Access: Exploring the Sharing Economy and Shared-Use Mobility" will be a panel discussion moderated by Professor Susan Shaheen, Co-Director TSRC. Panelists include: Neal Gorenflo, Co-Founder Shareable; Ed Reiskin, Director of Transportation, SFMTA; Shomik Raj Mehndiratta, Lead Transport Specialist, the World Bank, Rick Hutchinson, CEO, City CarShare; Michael Jones, Principal & Founder, Alta Bicycle Share.

A panel of leaders of the sharing economy and shared-use mobility will introduce the burgeoning economy, discuss various forms of shared-use mobility (such as carsharing, public bikesharing, and web-enabled apps) and explore policy issues associated with scaling and with the integration of shared-use mobility services into the transportation landscape (such as privacy, open data, insurance, safety, equity). The discussion will explore the opportunities to be had in developing a robust public-private partnership, the obstacles that must be faced during this process, and the role research can take in informing the creation of policy.

This event, in honor of the launch of our new University Transportation Center, UC CONNECT, will be held in conjunction with Transportation Engineering’s open house welcoming potential graduate students to the program and to the UC Berkeley campus. Faculty, students, new students, and alumni are welcome to join us for this event. A reception will follow.

The special seminar take place this Friday, April 11th, 2014; 3:30 - 5:00 pm in the Banatao Auditorium, Sutardja Dai Hall. (Note: different time and different location!) There is also a reception to follow. Cookie Hour will still happen, but at 3:00 pm in the library. 

USDOT moving forward with Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication technology

 

Yesterday USDOT and NHTSA announced plans to move forward with vehicle-to-vehicle communications technology (V2).  The Connected Vehicles program will eventually push research into production, establishing protocols and standards for manufacturers. Right now the aim is for 2017, so it's not going to happen overnight. Connected vehicles should increase road safety despite some security concerns. Malware for you car? The ITS-JPO has already held a public workshop to address different network security angles

Much of the research on V2 or Connected vehicles can be found in TRID. The Technological Innovations section highlights advanced technology across the board, but for just vehicles use "vehicle to vehicle communications" or "vehicle to roadside communications". 

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