Reports

The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model

08-hollywood-HTF-3966

A new report from Lawrence Berkeley National Lab was issued last month that presents a new model for California's greenhouse gas emissions. Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  by Jeffery Greenblatt presents and describes the model which was developed for the California Air Resources Board

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 µm) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

The full report can be found here

 

Mini-Bikes Safety Fact Sheet

Speeed Shriners

We have several obscure items in our collection. One we stumbled across today was the Consumer Product Safety Commision's 1978 Fact Sheet on Mini-Bikes. They cite that at the time of writing, 31,000 people a year require hospital treatment for mini-bike incidents. Their exmaple accident is described:

DICK TRIED TO STOP HIS MINI-BIKE WHEN ANOTHER BOY RODE TOWARDS HIM, BUT HIS HANDBRAKES FAILED TO WORK. THEY COLLIDED, AND DICK FELL, HITTING HIS HEAD AND PINNING HIS RIGHT ARM AND LEG UNDER THE BIKE. HE SUFFERED A SLIGHT CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE AND A SPRAINED RIGHT ARM.

Safety tipes include:

  • Look for a mini-bike with large wheels. Typically, mini-bikes with small wheels are unstable.
  • The rider should be able to conveniently reach all controls without exerting himself.
  • After buying a bike, don't modify its design.

They also warn riders of impromper use and rider error:

MICKEY WAS RIDING HIS MINI-BIKE WHEN HIS LEFT PANTS LEG CAUGHT IN THE CHAIN DRIVE AND SPROCKET MECHANISM. HE SUFFERED PUNCTURE WOUNDS ON HIS LEG.

The whole document, with several more tips on how to enjoy mini-bikes without a trip to the hospital, can be found here

 

 

Metro ExpressLanes preliminary report

Harbor Freeway Transitway

Last week the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Autority, or LA Metro, released the preliminary data from the ExpressLanes program. ExpressLanes is a demonstration project with Metro and Caltrans that implemented toll lanes on I-10 and I-110 in conjunction with improved transit and carpool options along those corridors. 

While the demonstration period is not yet over, there have already been noticable increases in transit ridership and vanpools along the corridor. To explore more of the data and figures, the full report can be found here

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