News

New Report on LCA and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Road Construction/Maintenance


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A new whitepaper from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation and ITS Davis explores the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and road construction and maintenance. The paper is The Role of Life Cycle Assessment In Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Road Construction and Maintenance by John Harvey, Alissa Kendall, and Arash Saboori. 

This white paper summarizes the state-of-knowledge and state-of-the-art in pavement LCA modeling, with particular emphasis on life cycle GHG emissions and on interpretation and analysis that lead to GHG reductions from the on-road transportation sector. This white paper synthesizes research from a number of previous and current projects, highlighting both broadly agreed upon methods and findings, and those that are emerging or currently debated. The goal is to inform federal, state, and local policymakers; pavement industry professionals; private pavement owners; and transportation and other researchers about the significance and role of pavement LCA in understanding and mitigating the negative environmental consequences of the pavement sector.

There has already been considerable research and implementation in this area in California. Some have developed better models to predict optimal maintenance strategies. Others have examined the tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in road resurfacing, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions through management of pavement roughness. Some of these concepts have been incorporated into Caltrans' PaveM pavement management system. 

Gov. Brown wants to fix California's highways


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Yesterday California Governor Jerry Brown help a press conference at the Port of Oakland to call for a bipartisan solution to fund the state's needed highway reapairs. Brown was evasive about the actual mechanisms to be used to raise funds, refusing to say anything about taxes. 

Then how can the state fund these necessary improvements? A recent report from ITS Davis,"A Funding Compromise Can Set Transportation on Path Toward Sustainability", proposes: 

The funding recommendations include a one-time use of corporate taxes to allow states to reduce the backlog of maintenance needs. The federal gas tax would be continued and indexed to inflation. Greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets would be set for each state and states would be allowed to ‘buy down’ their gas tax as they reduce their GHG emissions. States would be given pricing and tolling authority and have the authority to implement a vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax. States would also assume responsibility for all roads. Taken together, these strategies would set transportation on the path toward sustainability.

For VMT-based pricing, we're still waiting for conclusive numbers from Oregon's recent implementation. Research has indicated that other types of road-pricing in California will need to be tailored to specific regions to be successful. It clear that even without the political will to raise it, the gas tax alone is not stable enough to fund the infrastructure repairs on the horizon. 

Library Closed for 4th of July

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We'll be closed Friday, July 3 2015 in observance of Independence Day. If you will be traveling this weekend, be careful out there. Historically the 4th of July is the day with the most crash deaths, which might corelate to an increase of heart transplants in the US? Increased traffic enforcement during the holiday period and communication with the public will hopefully help. 

And if you're going to watch a fireworks display, you can let people know that the effects 4th of July fireworks on atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter is actually measurable

Stay safe and sane. See you Monday. 

Bus Bunching Explained Visually

 

Any bus rider knows what a problem bus bunching can be. (Anybody riding AC Transit's 51B to campus lives with this daily.) It's a popular research topic, with many articles and reports exploring the causes and solutions to prevent bunching.

ITS PhD student Lewis Lehe and designer Dennys Hess have developed visualization to explain why bus bunching happens. (You need to use Chrome.) Go try it out. CityLab and Metafilter are talking about it.  

Lehe has made many other visualizations explaining transportation phenomena like gridlock vs. bottlenecks and traffic waves. You can see more of his work on setosa.io

On Positive Train Control


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It's been almost a week since the Philadelphia train derailment and people the question remains - would postive train control prevented the incident

What is potive train control? The Federal Railorad Administation (FRA) defines it as: "Positive Train Control (PTC) systems are integrated command, control, communications, and information systems for controlling train movements with safety, security, precision, and efficiency." Its deployment is mandated in the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008 by December 31, 2105. There is still a ways to go. 

The Association of American Railroads notes the enormity of the task

PTC is an unprecedented technical and operational challenge. Since enactment of RSIA, railroads have devoted enormous human and financial resources to develop a fully functioning PTC system over the 60,000 miles that are subject to the PTC mandate. Progress to date has been substantial. Railroads have retained more than 2,400 signal system personnel to implement PTC and has already spent $5 billion on PTC development and deployment. Railroads expect to spend more than $9 billion before development and installation is complete.

A GAO report from 2013 outlines a number of challenges facing OTC roll out, echoing AAR's concerns about the complexity of the system and the timeline not being feasible. 

The week before the Philadelphia derailment, the FRA also issued a research brief about PTC across shared networks that could be used by multiple railroads. 

For more research about PTC you should go check out TRID

 

Amtrak Train Derailment in Philadelphia: Time to think about rail and infrastructure safety

Photo credit: AP 

Last night Amtrak Northeast Regional Train 188 frp, Washington to New York derailed in Philadelphia killing 7 and injuring more than 200 passengers and crew. The cause of the derailment is not yet known but the data recorders have been recovered and are currently being analyzed. This has been one of the biggest passenger rail crashes in recent times and investigators are looking at a number of factors. It should be noted that while rail fatalities have climbed in recent years, derailments are rare. You can find more rail safety data here.

Vice President Joe Biden, one of Amtrak's Northeast Regional's biggest proponents gave an emotional reaction. Today Congress rejected a funding increase proposal to Amtrak to make capital improvements. The last time Congress passed an Amtrak bill, it was after another fatal train crash - the 2008 Los Angeles Metrolink crash.  This week was also dubbed "Infrastructure Week" by USDOT Secretary Anthony Foxx as he's been campaigning for increased investment in our nation's infrastructure needs. (For a take on the current state of the US's infrastructure needs, check out Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (NSFW)). 

 

California's new ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets.


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Yesterday California Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order establishing the state's greenhouse gas reduction target 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030 (Executive Oder B-30-15).  This new executive order is another step reducing California's greenhouse gas emissions after the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) which set reduction targets to 1990 levels by 2020. LBNL models predict we're on target to meet the 2020 goals but will need more effort ot meet the ultimate 2050 goals. 

Research in this area demonstrates that to achieve 80% greenhouse gas reductions by 2050 that moving to low-carbon and renewable energy will be important, but also investment in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology. Integrated climate protection into planning and land use policies, such as smart growth planning, will also help California meet its targets. Much of the technological innovations to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 hinges on the role of electricity to move away from carbon based fuels across economic sectors. And yes, high-speed rail could also be part of the solution

Connected/Autonomous Vehicles, Ownership, and DMCA: What will vehicle ownership mean in the future?


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Today Wired ran a story about John Deere's assertion that purchasing one of their tractors is "an implied license for the life of the vehicle to operate the vehicle." The key issue is not the hardware, but the software and the ability to access and modify it.  Using DMCA, many vehicle manufacturers are submitting comments to the Copyrights Office that modifying their software in a form of piracy. So legally, is this the end of ownership as we know it?

The questions and concerns about this legal development has been brewing for some time, but as the internet of thing comes closer to being a reality more people are calling into question our existing copyright and patent system and their limitations. (Even John Oliver discussed patents!)

This issue has been on the radar of USDOT's ITS JPO for a while now, especially the policy implications for connected and automated vehicles. The critical issue is the balance of open source software and concerns about cybersecurity and safety. Some of the promise of connected/automated vehicles, is the rich big data environments they will operate in but how can the industry cooperatively get there despite concerns about privacy and innovation? There is also the looming issue of liability for connected/autonomous vehicles, much of which hinges questions of safety and the perception of risk. 

It will be interesting to see how all of this develops and the rules are made. 

Accessibility and the Sharing Economy: Leap, Uber, Lyft and ADA requirements


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The disruption of traditional transportation by startups like Uber and Lyft has created waves and caused many cities and agencies to re-examine how they regulate taxis and the livery system. Now it looks like upstarts like Leap and Chariot, aiming to disrupt public transit, may be on the same course. 

It was reported today that last month a complaint was filed with the Department of Justice because Leap has failed to make its buses accessible to wheelchairs. This echoes similar concerns that has been expressed about Uber and Lyft. It is important to note that the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) does not require automobiles to be accessible, while other types of vehicles (vans and buses) must be accessible. 

Transit is crucial in providing accessible mobility options for people with disabilities, which is important to the quality of life. There has been much research focused on how to improve these transportation networks, including using taxis as a potential form of paratransit. TNCs like Uber and Lyft have improved accessible for some groups, it has been inconsistent. This review of Uber from the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) points out the service works well with iOS, but that they Android app is not accessible. There is also the issue that riders with guide dogs might be refused a ride and "there appears to be no legal recourse that can be taken under the ADA at this time." The AFB has since filed a lawsuit against Uber and the DOJ now says Uber must comply with ADA. These sorts of regulatory growing pains seem to be a part of disruptive transportation companies maturity, which is why the complaint filed against Leap isn't very surprising. 

The Leap case also raises the existential question - what does it mean to be a transit service? Part of Leap's argument is that they do not provide transit, rather they connect riders with an operator. This is the same position Uber and Lyft have taken with regard to its relationship with riders and drivers, which also has a lawsuit in the courts. Leap and Chariot are basically modern jitneys that compliment existing services and jitneys are not exempt ADA requirements.

Traveling this Winter? We are. Library closed 12/23-1/19.

292:365 - Closed Security

Now that the Fall Semester is over, lots of students are packing up and flying home for the break. We here at the ITS Library will also be leaving town, and the library will be closed from December 22, 2014 through January 19, 2015. We will reopen on Tuesday, January 20, 2015 at 1:00PM. (Will we see you at TRB?)

If you are one of the 5.4 million travelers who are flying this week, it's a good idea to rfresh your memory with current TSA guidelines and recommnedations. There will be some changes ahead for the TSA after this Holiday crunch as Transportation Secuirty Administrator John Pistole steps down at the end of December after 4 1/2 years in charge.  Pistole leave a legacy safe skies and socken feet. A recent GAO report recommends that the TSA should take additional steps to determine its program effectiveness. Will 2015 be a year of change in airport security? Stay tuned. 

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