Kendra K. Levine's blog

Valuation of Travel Time

Travel Time Map - Department of Transport - MySociety

There a new article in the new journal Economics of Transportation that examines how travel time is valued, how and what is considered, and what should be improved. Kenneth Small's "Valuation of Travel Time"

After decades of study, the value of travel time remains incompletely understood and ripe for further theoretical and empirical investigation. Research has revealed many regularities and connections between willingness to pay for time savings and other economic factors including time of day choice, aversion to unreliability, labor supply, taxation, activity scheduling, intra-household time allocation, and out-of-office productivity. Some of these connections have been addressed through sophisticated modeling, revealing a plethora of reasons for heterogeneity in value of time rooted in behavior at a micro scale. This paper reviews what we know and what we need to know. A recurrent theme is that the value of time for a particular travel movement depends strongly on very specific factors, and that understanding how these factors work will provide new insights into travel behavior and into more general economic choices.

The full article can be found here

Introducing TransitWiki.org

Crenshaw Blvd Walk

Have you ever thought, "Now that I can't go to conferences any more, if only there was a cheap and easy way that I could learn what other transit planners are up to?" TransitWiki.org is here for you! A joint effort from from UCLA's Institute of Transportation Studies and Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation, TransitWiki facillitates knowledge and information exchange among transit professionals. Go check it out and follow @TransitWiki on Twitter! 

The relationship between aviation and corporate networks.

Frankfurt von Himmel 3

A new paper from the Journal of Transport Georgraphy explores the relationship between aviation and corporate networks. Is it just coincidence that cities like London, New York, Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Dubai, and Chicago have major air traffic and major corporations? According to the authors of "Exploring the co-evolution of the geographies of air transport aviation and corporate networks", there is:

In this paper we aim to contribute to the literature on the empirical parallels between urban hierarchies and the transport networks supporting and/or reflecting these hierarchies. We adopt a stochastic actor-based modeling framework to analyze the co-evolution of the world city hierarchy and global air passenger networks between 2000 and 2010/2011. The data are drawn from an inventory of the location strategies of globalized service firms across world cities and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Major findings include (1) exogenous effects, such as the impact of economic development and regionality; (2) endogenous micro-level effects producing macro-level patterns, such as preferential attachment processes; and (3) the two-way impact of both networks. (i.e., cities that are well connected in the aviation network tend to attract more major offices of globalized service firms, while the co-presence of major offices of globalized service firms in cities in turn stimulates the development of aviation connections between them).

The full article can be found online here

Access Across America: How accessible are the jobs?

This week University of Minnesota's CTS issued a report about accessibility to job that includes an interactive map. Access Across America

Access Across America, a study by David Levinson, the R.P. Braun/CTS Chair in Transportation Engineering at the University of Minnesota, goes beyond congestion rankings to focus on accessibility: a measure that examines both land use and the transportation system. The study is the first systematic comparison of trends in accessibility to jobs by car within the U.S. By comparing accessibility to jobs by automobile during the morning peak period for 51 metropolitan areas, the study tells us which cities are performing well in terms of accessibility and which have seen the greatest change.

The full report can be found here. And here's the data!California is well represented with Los Angeles (1), SF-Oakland (2), and San Jose (6) all in the Top Ten.

Influence of Neighborhood Design on Travel Behaviour

United Auto Bristol RE ECW, PHN 177L

The connection between land use and travel behavior isn't a new field of transportation research, though it is definitely of much concern these days. Several researchers are looking at the current relationship of land use and travel behavior in neighborhoods. One new paper in the March 2013 issue of Transport Policy from Newcastle University focuses on the attitudes of neighborhoods in Tyne and Wear, North East England. In "The influence of neighbourhood design on travel behaviour: Empirical evidence from North East England" by Paulus Teguh Aditjandraa Corinne Mulley, and John D. Nelson find: 

This paper investigates the factors that affect travel behaviour within neighbourhoods in Tyne and Wear, North East England while accounting for differences in attitudes and perceptions. Ten different neighbourhoods have been carefully selected to characterise the two different types of traditional and suburban neighbourhood street layouts. A self-administered questionnaire has been delivered to 2200 households to capture neighbourhood design, travel patterns, travel attitudes and socio-economic characteristics. Multivariate analysis of cross-sectional data shows that some socio-economic variables as well as travel attitudes and neighbourhood design preferences can explain the differences in travel patterns between the two distinct neighbourhood designs. The results show additionally that the traditional neighbourhood group is more sensitive to factors of perception and attitudes in relation to neighbourhood design that lead to walking, cycling and public transport use travel patterns, suggesting that land-use policy designed to accommodate lower carbon-based travel together with measures to encourage active travel will have greater impact on the traditional group than the suburban group. This finding suggests that generic measures imposed by many governments, and certainly implied by current UK land-use policy, to promote sustainable mobility should be selectively targeted.

The full paper can be found here

Spring Break: We'll Be Closed March 25-29

up in the air

Next week is Spring Break for UC Berkeley and the ITS Library will be closed. Lots of students will be going on vacation because it's that time in the semester when you just want to get away. Student travel behavior is often mythic - the trips to the beach - but is that reality? What about different market segments

Whatever you do, be safe. We'll see you on Monday April 1. 

Megacommuters: Travel time and income.

405 Freeway Los Angeles

Earlier this month the Census Bureau released the new American Community Survey (ACS). One of the figures they highlighted was the rise of the "megacommuters".

About 8.1 percent of U.S. workers have commutes of 60 minutes or longer, 4.3 percent work from home, and nearly 600,000 full-time workers had "megacommutes" of at least 90 minutes and 50 miles. The average one-way daily commute for workers across the country is 25.5 minutes, and one in four commuters leave their county to work.

The Bay Area is the nation's megacommuter capital with 2.6 percent of the full-time workers in the region enduring megacommutes. 

These statistics are interesting and relate to a new paper from University of Minnesota. Published in the March 2013 issue of Transportation, "Selfishness and altruism in the distribution of travel time and income" by Nebiyou Tilahun and David Levinson report the results of a Stated Preference experiment comparing choice income and travel time. 

Does distance matter? How does where you live and work affect happiness?

Divisadero Parklet - Bike Parking - San Francisco

A new article from Transportation Research A: Policy and Practice investigates travel behavior related to where people live and work (for those who can't telecommute). "Does distance matter? Exploring the links among values, motivations, home location, and satisfaction in walking trips" looks at traveler motivations and levels of satisfaction. They also suggest a new conceptional model for walking behavior. The research will help develop a more robust understanding of travel behavior and choice. You can find the whole article here

New Interactive Commute Map

Here's something new from WNYC: An interactive map of average commute times from around the nation, based up information from the American Community Survey. You can download the data and play around with it.

(HT InfrastructureUSA)

On-Street Parking Regulations Driving Shoppers To Malls?

meters

A recent article from Transportation Research Part A examines how on-street parking regulation has influenced shoppers' behaviour. In "Convenience for the car-borne shopper: Are malls and shopping strips driving customers away?", Vaughn Reimers of Monash University studied shopper preferences related to parking and their perceptions related to parking at malls and shopping districts. 

Global warming, increasing traffic congestion, diminishing resources and declining health levels have led to the introduction of several policies aimed at deterring car-usage. However many such policies have not only often failed to achieve their objective, they also risk jeopardising the retail sector. To help understand why, this study measures the importance shoppers assign to car convenience, their perceptions of shopping malls and shopping strips (also referred to as Main Street or the High Street) in relation to it, and then compares them in their actual provision of it. To achieve these objectives, the study utilised a consumer household survey and a retail audit. The results of the study indicate that consumers regard car convenience as an important determinant of where they choose to shop, and perceive malls as a superior source of it. Moreover, with the sole exception of being able to park close to desired stores, malls offer car-borne shoppers more convenient access and parking. The findings suggest that any strategy designed to deter car usage should be designed to impact equally on both mall shopping and strip shopping, or risk tipping the balance even further in favour of the mall.

Parking regulation and reform is an oft studied field. From the effects of cruising for parking to how pricing influences behavior. Of course more articles about parking pricing can be found in TRID

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